More Cool Cell Tricks Discovered

Tag: 验证 阿拉爱上海

first_imgWatching molecular machines at work in living cells should be as fascinating as watching a city through a magnifying glass.Observing biological nanotransporters (Science Daily). What if you could watch drawbridges working on the head of a pin? Something like that, but far smaller, works inside your cells. There’s a “nanoporter” that uses ATP to transport cargo in and out of cell membranes. This system is not as simple as A-B-C, even though it has that name.“ABC transporters are fascinating biological nanomachines,” says Lars Schäfer, head of the Molecular Simulation research group [at Ruhr-University Bochum]. These proteins couple the binding and chemical cleavage of ATP molecules, the chemical energy unit of the cell, with the transport of molecules through biological membranes….“Our results show how the binding of ATP molecules induces structural changes in the transporter that are ultimately required to carry substrate molecules through the membrane,” explains Hendrik Göddeke, co-author and doctoral researcher in Lars Schäfer’s group.Study reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor that packs and unpacks DNA (Phys.org). A chromosome remodeler named INO80 is performing onstage at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich: on the microscope stage, that is. Researchers at LMU watched the act of “astonishing precision” as it worked on its “heavy-duty reorganizational task” of wrapping DNA around chromatin.Chromatin remodelers have an essential role as they are molecular machines: they unpick and unpack segments of the DNA by sliding nucleosome spools back and forth, replacing individual histones, freeing up the DNA for transcription, and finally compacting it again, when the job is done. Since all of this happens in a highly dynamic fashion, chromatin remodelers enable cells to react rapidly to alterations in their environment – and this holds for brewer’s yeast as well as for human cells.The clouds of spaghetti that keep DNA data safe (Science Daily). Computer systems worry about data breaches, and so do cells. The cell nucleus is like a massive library read by numerous machines. They deliver information to the cytoplasm outside the nucleus, but only certain molecules can get in or out. This article describes some of the data protection systems provided by the Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs), some of the most complex machine systems in cells.Molecular machines (Illustra Media)Cells can avoid “data breaches” when letting signaling proteins into their nuclei thanks to a quirky biophysical mechanism involving a blur of spaghetti-like proteins, researchers from the Rockefeller University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have shown. Their study appears in the March 23 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry….To travel through NPCs, many molecules must be attached to proteins called transport factors (TFs), which act as shuttles that the NPC recognizes. But the NPC faces a challenge: It must accurately recognize and bind to TFs to let them through without admitting unwanted traffic, but it must let them through quickly — in a matter of milliseconds — in order for the cell to be able to do its duties. Proteins known to accurately bind to specific molecules, like antibodies, normally stay stuck to their targets for periods of up to months.“How on Earth do you have the kind of specificity that we see in protein-protein interactions like antibodies, and yet have the kind of speed that we see with water off a Teflon pan?” asked Michael Rout, professor at Rockefeller University who was one of the co-lead authors of the work.The spaghetti trick involves many intrinsically-disordered proteins in the NPC, looking somewhat like strands of spaghetti, making “many quick, transient contacts between transport factors” and nuclear proteins. How can we visualize this? “I can’t think of any analogy in normal life that does what this does,” Rout said. “You’ve got this blur of (amino acids) coming on and off (the transport factor) with extraordinary speed.” Maybe security engineers could learn something from this technique.Scientists map the portal to the cell’s nucleus (Science Daily). In this second article from Rockefeller University about the NPC, Rout did find one analogy:It reminds us of a suspension bridge, in which a combination of sturdy and flexible parts produce a stress-resilient structure, says Michael P. Rout, who led the work together with Brian T. Chait.The pore complex contains 552 component proteins, called nucleoporins, and scientists hadn’t previously known how they all fit together. It took a combination of approaches to assemble a comprehensive map of these pieces.Sadly, after comparing the NPC to lesser systems designed intelligently by humans, Rout ascribes it all to evolutionary chance. “Evolution has enclosed it with a double membrane, the nuclear envelope,” the article says, going on to visualize some unobserved miracles:The pore complex first emerged when single-celled organisms — the only living things at the time — acquired special compartments containing organ-like structures, including the nucleus, which houses the cell’s genetic code.Strings of electron-carrying proteins may hold the secret to ‘electric bacteria’ (Phys.org). This article suggests that some bacteria may have the ability to transfer electrons from the inside to the outside environment, using “micro machines” that turn on the power to extract energy from the environment. “Could a unique bacterium be nature’s microscopic power plant?” asks Moh El-Naggar, scientist at USC. Isn’t it nice to know that bacteria, “wired for survival” as among the smallest organisms on earth, are “highly evolved machines”?Microbiologists, can you please please turn off the obligatory Darwinspeak and just tell us the facts of what you are looking at? You’re beginning to sound like comedians. (Visited 422 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


Tag: 验证 阿拉爱上海

first_img12 Unique Gifts for the Hard-to-Shop-for People… Related Posts Tags:#cloud computing#gaming#Google#web 4 Keys to a Kid-Safe App 9 Books That Make Perfect Gifts for Industry Ex… sarah perez 5 Outdoor Activities for Beating Office Burnout The announcement of the Chrome Web App Store was one of the more exciting reveals from this spring’s Google I/O Developer Conference, where the company explained how the Web App Store would function as a tool that makes application discovery easier for end users while making it easier for developers to list and sell their apps.  Google Bets on Web AppsGoogle is betting that the future of computing is the Web, not native applications. Analysts have been predicting this transition as well, citing cloud computing’s soon-to-be disruptive force in the mobile industry, specifically – a segment of the market which would also include tablet computing. Mobile Web apps have the potential to reach more users, including those whose only access to the Web is via a basic “feature phone” with an integrated browser, for example. That alone should make Web apps appealing to developers looking to reach the broadest user base.For now though, native applications are still extremely popular among end users because of the way they can be specifically customized to take advantage of a particular device’s features and functionality. But with the upcoming developments in orientation support, Chrome OS will be able to run apps and games that take advantage of some features that formerly only native applications had access to. That said, there are still several other hurdles for Web apps to overcome before they’re on par with their native application counterparts, including the need for improvements in speed and performance, access to all of device’s sensors and hardware components, the ability to send push notifications and more. However, a Web browser which knows which way is up is a good first step. When Google’s new Web-based operating system Chrome OS launches later this year, it may be ready to serve not only as a simple netbook and tablet OS, but also as an interface for playing casual games like those currently found on Apple’s iPhone and iPad. On Apple mobile gadgets like the iPhone and iPod Touch, a combination of hardware-based motion sensors allow the device to know how you’re holding it – up, down, sideways, etc. – and changes the orientation accordingly.  And in the iPhone 4, a new gyroscope allows for additional motion-sensing capabilities, too, like the ability to track orientation, velocity and rotation. But Web browsers, like IE, Chrome, Safari and Firefox, haven’t traditionally been able to detect which way is up. That may soon change for Google Chrome, the browser that forms the core of the upcoming operating system of the same name – it’s getting orientation capabilities that will tell apps running in the browser which way the device is being held.  Chrome Will Know Up from Down According to a report from CNET, the orientation support now being added to Chrome would be “particularly useful” for mobile gaming. “For example, tilting a device can turn it into a steering wheel or a tabletop on which a marble rolls,” writes CNET’s Stephen Shankland describing the upcoming capabilities.Already, developers are hard at work building applications for the Chrome operating system and its accompanying Chrome Web Store, which will function as Google’s version of the “App Store” for Web-based applications. In test builds of the browser’s open source bits, developers are running everything from simple card games to arcade-like casual games, including popular iTunes titles like “Plants vs. Zombies” and console favorite “Lego Star Wars.”last_img read more


Tag: 验证 阿拉爱上海

first_imgBy his sheer grit and determination, a poor teenage boy from a remote village in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan has won laurels by getting prizes and awards, thanks to his teachers’ guidance and an educational quality support programme honing his skills.High scoresFifteen-year-old Dharma Ram has excelled in both academics and extra-curricular activities, winning prizes in athletics, kabaddi and inter-school arts competitions, in addition to scoring high marks in his science subject. He is at present a student of Class X at the Government Senior Secondary school in Dhandhaniya Bhaila village.Financial hurdlesDharma started his education at the age of six years in his native Jati Bandhu village, when his family was struggling to make ends meet. His father was working at a stone quarry and mother was battling the last stage of cancer.During his early days in school, Dharma’s teachers sensed his thirst for knowledge and encouraged him to polish his talent. The young boy’s confidence and resolution grew with the passage of time. In addition to his keen interest in science, he emerged as an all-rounder student.Dharma lost his mother to cancer and his father quit his daily job at the mines due to failing health, while the family survived on occasional stints at the stone quarries. Despite such tough conditions, Dharma has excelled in academics and won several medals at the State-level science quiz competitions.Science teacher Dharma told The Hindu from Dhandhaniya Bhaila village that he aspires to be a science teacher. He is getting help from the Satya Bharti Quality Support Programme, which covers his school. His family comprising two brothers, a sister and father continues to face financial hurdles.Represents schoolThe young boy has recently won first prize in a State-level science exhibition organised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. He was also sent to represent his school at a State-level science quiz competition, where he won the third prize and was encouraged to continue pursuing his aspirations in the field of science.School principal Lalit Kumar said Dharma, consistently a topper in his class, was preparing hard for his examinations due next month.last_img read more


Tag: 验证 阿拉爱上海

first_imgOver 12 months after the gang rape of a minor girl near Kunduli in Koraput district and her subsequent death by hanging, no leader of any political party or social organisation has come forward to file an affidavit or testify before the Judicial Commission set up by the Odisha government to probe the case.The 15-year-old victim had alleged that on October 10, 2017, she was gang-raped by four men dressed as jawans of paramilitary forces near Kunduli. She had killed herself by hanging at her home in Musaguda on January 22 this year.On November 8, 2017, the government had ordered a judicial inquiry into the incident by a sitting district judge. A parallel enquiry by the State Crime Branch was also ordered. But to date the culprits have not been identified.Speaking to The Hindu, special counsel of the Judicial Commission, Prabhakar Patnaik, said the time period of the Commission ended on September 25 this year and, as per his knowledge, it has already furnished its report to the State government. Mr. Patnaik said no leader of any political party or social organisation came out to testify or provide evidence before the Commission.According to Mr. Patnaik, advertisements were published in two Odia and one English newspapers inviting documents and evidence from any stakeholder to be furnished before the Commission. Family members of the victim were witnesses of the Commission. Fifteen others, including police officers involved in the investigation of the case, doctors who treated the victim and the Koraput District Child Protection Officer testified before the Commission.last_img read more


Tag: 验证 阿拉爱上海

first_imgView comments It would be the 13-time European champion’s biggest achievement yet if it can pull through again.ENGLISH REVIVALAll four of England’s representatives have advanced for the second straight season, even if two of them — Liverpool and Tottenham — left it to their final matches.They have deep squads, increasingly the best and most sought-after coaches, and a sheer force of numbers — 25 percent of the remaining field.Manchester City and Liverpool, in particular, should be among the favorites for the title.Can City manager Pep Guardiola, the outstanding coach of his generation, end what will be an eight-year personal wait to win Europe’s top prize, and for the first time away from Barcelona?Can Liverpool manager Juergen Klopp juggle contending in the Premier League with trying to reach a second straight Champions League final?MIND THE GAPThe most successful leagues in (western) Europe are becoming more successful in the Champions League.The big four leagues — England, Spain, Italy and Germany — have 12 representatives, or 75 percent of the total. Two more come from fifth-ranked Ligue 1 in France, plus there is Porto from the seventh-ranked Portuguese league. Ajax is a relative outlier from the 11th-ranked Eredivisie in Netherlands. Lionel Messi and Robert Lewandowski are the leading scorers.Is it a case of business as usual in this Champions League?FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine ‍football chiefMaybe not.While there seems to be an ever-widening gap between the biggest, richest clubs and the rest, there also appears to be more potential winners than ever in a last-16 lineup that sets up what could be a thrilling knockout stage. Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue LATEST STORIES No eastern European team advanced. The most eastern team in Monday’s draw? Bayern Munich. Even the final is being played in Madrid, rather than Kiev last season.The Champions League seems truly a western affair. Teams not challenging for their national title, like Manchester United and Schalke, advanced with a game to spare. Russia is the sixth-ranked league by club performances in UEFA competitions yet for the third straight year its top-seeded champion — Lokomotiv Moscow — failed to advance.The round-of-16 lineup looks ever more like a Super League in waiting.PRIZE MONEY SKEWThe on-field domination of the richest teams comes in the first year of a near-40 percent hike in UEFA prize money, with more designed to go to them.UEFA and the European Club Association designed a format to distribute 1.95 billion euros ($2.22 billion) among 32 teams with a new element rewarding teams for past titles.It ensured preventing what happened two seasons ago when Leicester, a newcomer banking lucrative British television money, earned more than eventual winner Real Madrid.This season, Madrid was sure to earn 50 million euros ($57 million) from UEFA before kicking a ball.UNLUCKIEST TEAMSNapoli is due a lucky break, and Shakhtar Donetsk is long overdue a home game. LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening Lacson: 2019 budget delay due to P75-B House ‘insertion’ A look at some things that stood out in group play:MADRID ON THE WANEThe most dominant team in the 27-season Champions League era might be on the wane.Real Madrid advanced as a group winner but lost home and away to CSKA Moscow and doesn’t have the same aura without Cristiano Ronaldo, who left for Juventus. The team is on its second coach of the season — a rookie in Santiago Solari — and is fourth in La Liga.Madrid’s players have won four of the last five Champions Leagues and usually come into their own in the knockout stage in terms of game management and handling the pressure. That was when they had Ronaldo to rescue them, though.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Yet, Lucien Favre’s side is better known for its attacking flair, with players like Paco Alcacer and Jadon Sancho — bought from Barcelona and Man City — particularly standing out.Dortmund has had to rebuild after selling star players such as Ousmane Dembele and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, and it has been done wisely and boldly.Five years after last reaching the final, Dortmund is a team to fear in the Champions League once again.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next ASEAN University Games: NU barges into men’s volleyball finals Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. In this Dec. 8, 2018 photo Dortmund players celebrate after scoring during the Bundesliga soccer match between FC Schalke 04 and Borussia Dortmund in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. Saturday’s 2-1 win at Schalke was Dortmund’s first Ruhr derby win in three years. (Bernd Thissen/dpa via AP)The usual pretenders topped their groups.Nearly all of the top teams advanced.ADVERTISEMENT Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Napoli had the most points — nine — of any team failing to advance after getting drawn in a group with Paris Saint-Germain and Liverpool.Napoli kicked off at Anfield on top of its group on Tuesday. After a 1-0 loss, Napoli had fallen to third, edged by Liverpool on a head-to-head tiebreaker of goals scored.Five seasons ago, Napoli had 12 points yet didn’t advance because Borussia Dortmund and Arsenal also had 12 and better tiebreaker statistics.With 30 minutes to play on Wednesday, Shakhtar was on course for the round of 16. Lyon tied the game and advanced instead.The game was moved to Kiev, after Shakhtar’s previous two home games were in Kharkiv, due to martial law being imposed during the latest Russian aggression affecting Ukraine.Shakhtar has also played in Lviv since last hosting a Champions League in its modern Donbass Arena in November 2013. Weeks later, Russian annexed Crimea and the Donbass region was affected by conflict between government forces and pro-Russia separatists that continues.SURPRISE TEAMThey are young. They are fearless. They have a point to prove. It would be some story if Borussia Dortmund manages to go all the way.Like Liverpool last season and Monaco the year before, the Champions League likes to throw up a surprise story and Dortmund might be the new darling of Europe this time round.Top of the German league by seven points, Dortmund also won its Champions League group and conceded a competition-low two goals in six matches.last_img read more