China’s alleged use of human flu drug in poultry questioned

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first_img See also: The United Nations’ World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are seeking more information from China about its reported use of amantadine in poultry, according to reports today by the Associated Press (AP) and Agence France-Presse (AFP). The Washington Post reported on Jun 18 that Chinese farmers, with the knowledge and support of government officials, used amantadine on chickens as long ago as the late 1990s. The report called the drug use a violation of international livestock guidelines. Jun 20, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – International health agencies are questioning China about a report that the country has used a human antiviral drug in poultry for years, thereby causing the H5N1 influenza virus to become resistant to the drug. The FAO’s Beijing office was seeking information from China’s agriculture ministry, AFP reported today. Roy Wadia, a WHO spokesman in Beijing, said it’s premature to blame China for spurring resistance to amantadine, AFP reported. The drug dates back to 1976, and human resistance has been a problem. But Wadia added that China’s use might have hastened the development of resistance. Bui Quang Anh, animal health director in Vietnam’s agriculture ministry, called for “very high vigilance” against avian flu and said that some provinces were not taking the problem seriously, AFP reported. But he said there were no plans for mass poultry vaccinations. However, the story said researchers in Hong Kong found outbreaks in China in 1997, 2001, and 2003. News Editor Robert Roos contributed to this article. Amantadine and rimantadine make up an older class of antiviral medications used to reduce the impact of influenza. Some nations have made stockpiling amantadine part of their flu pandemic preparedness plans. A newer and more costly class of antiviral drugs, the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), is also used against flu. According to the Post, pharmaceutical executives in China confirmed that amantadine had been used since the late 1990s to treat or prevent avian flu in chickens. China first reported an outbreak of avian flu to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on Feb 2, 2004, according to the OIE listing of H5N1 outbreaks. Researchers found last year that the strain of H5N1 found in Vietnam and Thailand had become resistant to amantadine. The Post story quoted health experts outside China as saying they had suspected the link between resistance and use in poultry. The story said international researchers now believe the Chinese use of the drug is to blame. Halvorson emphasized that flu outbreaks in poultry must be addressed on a country-by-country basis because of national laws. He said the international community needs to reach out to those countries willing to get help. Halvorson could have predicted that resistance would arise if the drug were used in poultry. He worked on research with amantadine in turkeys about 20 years ago. “We found that resistance occurred quite quickly,” he said. Dave Halvorson, DVM, a veterinarian in avian health at the University of Minnesota in S. Paul, registered little surprise at the news today.center_img News out of Vietnam today served to underscore his point. Veterinary officials there announced that another 6,000 chickens were infected with H5N1, the first outbreak there in 2 months, according to AFP. The outbreak occurred in the southern province of Ben Tre, southwest of Ho Chi Minh City, the story said. Chinese authorities denied the report. OIE avian flu reportshttp://www.oie.int/downld/AVIAN%20INFLUENZA/A_AI-Asia.htm Amantadine targets the “M” protein of flu viruses, explained Osterholm, who is director of the University of Minnesota Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, publisher of this Web site. If a pandemic virus arose through the combination, or reassortment, of the H5N1 avian virus with a human flu virus, the M gene would come from the human virus, he said. As a result, “That [new virus] should still be relatively susceptible to amantadine,” he said. “These other countries are just overwhelmed,” he said. “Just finding avian flu is a big enough problem, let alone getting rid of it.” The government has never allowed farmers to use amantadine, said Xu Shixin, director of the agriculture ministry’s veterinary bureau, as quoted today in the newspaper China Daily. He added that the government will take action soon to curb illicit use. He also said avian flu in China was under control. If the H5N1 virus gives rise to a pandemic strain of flu, the resistance to amantadine might not necessarily carry through to the new strain, according to infectious disease expert Michael T. Osterholm, PhD, MPH. It would depend on the process that produced the pandemic strain. “People who thought about it must have figured out they were using amantadine in poultry,” he said. “The resistance is not new information.” However, “Either way it’s bad,” because even if a pandemic virus is susceptible to amantadine, the drug will be in short supply, he added. The impact of the amantadine treatment isn’t clear. One FAO official quoted by AFP said it’s important to find out whether China had found a safe way to deliver the drug to animals, but warned that underdosing causes resistance. Use of amantadine in livestock is banned in the United States and other countries, the newspaper reported. Yet veterinarians explained to Chinese farmers how to use the drug and even supplied it, the story said. However, if the H5N1 virus adapted to humans gradually through a series of mutations, rather than through reassortment, it could remain resistant to amantadine. “If it continues to mutate, and we see a pandemic strain arise through slow human adaptation, that could mean amantadine is all but done,” Osterholm said. “Amantadine is widely used in the entire country,” the Post quoted Zhang Libin, head of the veterinary medicine division of Northeast General Pharmaceutical Factory in Shenyang, as saying. “Many pharmaceutical factories around China produce amantadine, and farmers can buy it easily in veterinary medicine stores.”last_img read more


Tag: 松江海玲珑有什么服务

first_imgCenter fielder Jen Krueger knocked an RBI triple, but it wasn\’t enough to beat Notre Dame Tuesday.[/media-credit]It was a collection of harsh gusting winds, mental lapses and poor play that lead to Wisconsin’s fall to 12- 30 while getting swept by the Notre Dame Fighting Irish.The Badgers came into the doubleheader on a six-game losing streak while the Irish were playing some of their best ball of the season with four consecutive victories.The miscues began to accumulate late in the first game with the Irish clinging to a 1-0 lead. With a runner on first, third baseman Theresa Boruta fielded a tough shot, threw to first where, according to head coach Chandelle Schulte, first baseman Alexis Garcia was supposed to be covering. Unfortunately, both Garcia and second baseman Livi Abney had converged on the base, and neither one of them caught Boruta’s throw, letting the ball into right field, and allowing the runners to advance to second and third.“That was unacceptable — on a slapper the first baseman always plays, you know there’s miscommunication, but there shouldn’t have been, there’s no gray area,” Schulte said.Following a walk, and a passed ball — each with the bases loaded — and another single up the middle, the Irish had expanded their lead to 4-0.With runners on first and third, the Badgers’ inexperience became evident. Trying to force a throw, the Irish base runner jogged to second, but Badger catcher Dana Rasmussen didn’t realize it, threw it late to Abney, who wasn’t within 10 feet of the bag.“Dana’s a first-year catcher, so she’s going to make mistakes,” Schulte said. “But I want to have their backs — you know they’re doing what we’re asking them to do, they’re out of position, she didn’t even look at the runner.”Abney tossed the ball to the shortstop Katie Soderberg, even though the Irish runner was already safely standing on the bag.After another walk loaded the bases, a fly ball to center fielder Jen Krueger — which initially looked like it would be a grand slam — got tangled up in the wind and caused Krueger to misjudge the ball letting in another run.“It was pretty tough. I just don’t think I’ve ever played in wind like that before, I thought the ball was over and then all of the sudden boom,” Krueger said. “I have to make adjustments.”Things got even stranger in the second game between the Badgers and the Fighting Irish.In the top of the sixth, with the Irish up 1-0 and a runner on second, an Irish batter sent a high fly ball to the right field warning track where swirling winds took over once again and caused Letty Olivarez to misplay the ball.“[The wind] shifts a lot — I obviously don’t get a lot of time out there, but it’s not an excuse,” Olivarez said.The batter advanced to third while the second run scored.“The wind was really tough,” Schulte said. “I have expectations that she should be able to make those plays but that was pretty tough.”After an inspiring half inning led by the catalyst of the lineup Jen Krueger, the Badgers managed to pull even and tie the game up at 2.In the top of the seventh, the Irish started a runner on first in an effort to manufacture runs by stealing second. Badger catcher Dana Rasmussen caught the ball, transitioned quickly into her throwing motion and flung the ball directly into Badger pitcher Leah Vanevenhoven’s kidney area.Thankfully, she was OK, but the miscue helped the Irish gain a 4-2 advantage, of which they wouldn’t relinquish.On the day, three errors, four passed balls and a wild pitch contributed to both of the Badgers’ losses.“It’s a 10 — it’s very frustrating,” Schulte said of how difficult the loss was.last_img read more