Cosmology’s Lumpiness Problem “Defies Theory”

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first_img(Visited 201 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 A record-breaking structure in the universe “defies theory,” the news said, ignoring that theory has been defied for decades since smaller large structures were found (the lumpiness problem).PhysOrg‘s article begins with an image of it.  It’s 4 billion light-years across, Science Daily‘s headline reads.  And National Geographic led off with: “Biggest Thing in Universe Found—Defies Scientific Theory.”  What is it?  a huge Large Quasar Group (LQG), found in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.Talk about a whopper—astronomers have discovered a structure in the universe so large that modern cosmological theory says it should not exist, a new study says.Well, then, will they junk theory and start over?  Roger Clowes confessed, “It could mean that our mathematical description of the universe has been oversimplified—and that would represent a serious difficulty and a serious increase in complexity.”  Nobody seems ready, however, to jump ship, even with the confessions:“This structure is bigger than we expect based on the shockwaves formed in the universe after the big bang,” said [Gerard] Williger.“This discovery was very much a surprise, since it does break the cosmological record as the largest structure in the known universe,” said study leader Roger Clowes, an astronomer at University of Central Lancashire in England.So this represents a challenge to our current understanding and now creates a mystery—rather than solves one,” Clowes said.One theory holds that this type of colossal collection of quasars may be precursors to galaxy superclusters in the modern universe—but the exact nature of their connection is still a mystery.Theory will survive because they need it to solve other problems.  National Geographic speculates,….the massive structure could possibly shed light on the evolution of galaxies like our own Milky Way. Quasars, which pump out powerful jets of energy, are among the brightest and most energetic objects from when the universe was still young. They represent an early, but brief, stage in the evolution of most galaxies.—not that anyone has seen that happen, but it fits with theory.The Lumpiness Problem in cosmology is old.*  PhysOrg writes, “Since 1982 it has been known that quasars tend to group together in clumps or ‘structures’ of surprisingly large sizes, forming large quasar groups or LQGs.”  Geller and Huchra threw down the first challenge in 1989 with their discovery of a “Great Wall” of galaxies.  This LQG is so big, though, that big bang theory cannot deal with it.  It spans 1/20 the observable universe.  That’s 500 Mpc (megaparsecs), far exceeding the limit of theory: “Based on the Cosmological Principle and the modern theory of cosmology, calculations suggest that astrophysicists should not be able to find a structure larger than 370 Mpc.”  Well, now they do.The team, led by Dr Roger Clowes from UCLan’s Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, has identified the LQG which is so significant in size it also challenges the Cosmological Principle: the assumption that the universe, when viewed at a sufficiently large scale, looks the same no matter where you are observing it from.New Scientist says the trend to find larger and larger structures has been ongoing:“As time went on, people did more and more surveys,” says Clowes. “Each time they found structures the size of the new survey, and you began to wonder when it would all stop.“Previous calculations gave a value of one billion light years as the maximum possible size of a cluster. The 1991 LQG is at this supposed limit, but Huge-LQG smashes right through it. The researchers say this could undermine the cosmological principle, although it may simply mean that we need to revise upwards the size limit on large structures.Aha—that suggests that theory can be rescued with a revision, something like raising the national debt ceiling.  But the Huge-LQG is not the only crisis: a controversial stream of galaxies all moving in the same direction, called the “dark flow,” also flies in the face of theory.Getting from a smooth beginning to a universe of structure has long proved a challenge to modern cosmology.  Now, at the other end of the problem, according to another article on Science Daily, spacetime is “a smoother brew than we knew.”  It’s not foamy like beer, but smooth like whiskey, the reporter quipped.  So how does one get from a smooth spacetime, and a cloud of expanding gas, to dense clusters of dense matter in long chains of quasars?  If it was hard to imagine in 1982, it’s much worse now.The responses of some cosmologists are instructive.  Reporter Jacob Aron at New Scientist ends with these:The search for such large structures is key to furthering our understanding of the universe and creating new and improved cosmological models, says Subir Sarkar of the University of Oxford. “All of this suggests there is structure on scales at which the universe is supposed to be boring,” he says.But the cosmological principle is so ingrained that it is hard for researchers to shake. “People are maybe understandably reluctant to give up the thing, because it will make cosmology too bloody complicated,” says Sarkar.In the NG article, Gerard Williger opined about what it would take to replace current theory:  “There is very likely some mechanism [that] is turning on quasars over a large scale like this—and in a short time—which could relate to some condition in the early universe.” With that, the cosmologists, briefly awakened from their dogmatic slumbers, rolled over and went back to sleep.*For previous entries on the Lumpiness Problem, see 11/10/2000, 6/05/2001, 8/22/2001, 10/24/2003, 1/02/2004, 6/12/2008, or search on “lumpiness” in the Search Bar.Try that kind of language in government to explain to a Congressional committee an unexpected expense doubling the limit of funding.  “There is very likely some mechanism that could relate to some condition in the early accounting.”So is the big bang falsified?  The Huge-LQG “broke through” the limit set by theory.  That should account for falsification.  Can we move on now to design theories?  The universe isn’t boring any more.  It’s downright exciting.  It’s far more complex than the secular consensus had “oversimplified.”  Let the evidence speak, and get to work.last_img read more


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first_imgBy Dora Doss, M.S., SLP-CCC Image from Pixabay.com, CCO Return to article. Long DescriptionImage from Pixabay.com, CCOWhen an early intervention service provider begins working with a new family, often a primary goal is to establish a collaborative relationship right from the start. Research has highlighted the benefits of discussing a provider’s role with a family during the first initial visit and encouraging families to view their role as an intervener (Davies, Marshall, Brown, & Goldbart, 2016).  By engaging in at-home activities with their child and communicating with the provider, caregivers assume the role of primary change agent (Davies et al., 2016).  Additionally, an early interventionist should see themselves as a family coach, promoting a conceptualization of activities targeting a child’s goals within established routines (Davies et al., 2016). In addition to discussing roles, there are six traits that a provider can focus on during the initial visit to establish a collaborative relationship.Communication.  The communication between family members and providers should be honest and open. When communicating with families, take time to listen for what is most important to them. Communicate clearly, while being sensitive to the emotions a parent or caregiver may have related to the delays their child is experiencing (Blue-Banning, Summers, Frankland, Nelson, & Beegle, 2004).Trust.  Caregivers should feel that the provider working with their family can be trusted.  Providers can establish trust by being punctual and consistent. Families also should feel confident that their child’s early interventionist will keep the information they share confidential.  Trust is also built when a provider values a family’s goals and priorities above their own (Blue-Banning et al., 2004).Humility. Early interventionists have a strong base of knowledge related to developmental delays and disorders.  However, the caregiver is the expert on their child and should be valued as such (Kriston, 2017). A strong partnership is built when the expertise of both the provider and the family intersect to develop a family-centered plan to address a child’s developmental concerns and family goals.Flexibility. Family dynamics and circumstances will differ from one family to another.  Personalities within a family can vary as well.  A provider who adjusts their approach, style, and even the ways in which they communicate to better serve a family demonstrates flexibility.  Author and educator Elizabeth Kriston (2017) calls this “being a chameleon.”Withhold Judgement. Keeping an open mind and a willingness to learn about a family’s values and goals is key to establishing a strong collaborative relationship.  Providers should learn about a family’s schedule, work obligations, and cultural beliefs. This is especially important when serving military families as their schedule and family life may require flexibility related to their connection to military service.  Families should feel understood and not judged as they work to best support their child’s development (Blue-Banning et al., 2004).Empowerment. Early interventionists have an opportunity to prepare caregivers to be effective team members and advocates for their children. Blue-Banning and colleagues (2004) stressed that early intervention should “not only engage parents as collaborative partners while they receive services, but it should also prepare parents to be effective partners with special services they encounter as their child grows older” (p. 168).  Early intervention providers can influence caregivers’ views on the special services system and collaboration with professionals.  Strengthening caregivers’ view of working with professionals and advocating as crucial team members can yield positive interactions for years to come. This is especially important when working with families whose children may need services beyond early intervention.As providers strengthen their skills in these six areas, strong collaborative relationships can be built with families.  These relationships can then serve as a means through which a child grows and achieves positive outcomes.ReferencesBlue-Banning, M., Summers, J. A., Corine Frankland, H., Nelson, L. L., & Beegle, G. (2004). Dimensions of family and professional partnerships: Constructive guidelines for collaboration. Exceptional Children, 70(2), 167–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440290407000203Davies, K. E., Marshall, J., Brown, L. J., & Goldbart, J. (2017). Co-working: Parents’ conception of roles in supporting their children’s speech and language development. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 33(2), 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659016671169Kriston, E. (2017, December 12).  Nine Tips for Building Relationships in Early Intervention [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.medbridgeeducation.com/blog/2017/12/9-tips-building-relationships-early-intervention/This post was edited by Robyn DiPietro-Wells & Michaelene Ostrosky, PhD, members of the MFLN FD Early Intervention team, which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, onTwitter, and YouTube.last_img read more


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first_imgSASKATOON – A Saskatchewan woman says she lost a finger after her ring got caught on a waterslide at one of the largest malls in North America.Claire Clark was celebrating her granddaughter’s third birthday at West Edmonton Mall’s water park on Aug. 5 when Clark decided to take a ride on a slide called the Corkscrew.She said she was grabbing onto a thin piece of mesh and foam padding at the top to push herself down when she got snagged.“My ring caught on that thing that I grabbed and it ripped off my finger, and my finger went with it,” Clark said. “It was awful.”Clark said the skin on her right ring finger was torn at the first knuckle and there was only bone on the rest of the finger.Clark said she remembers going down the slide and holding her hand so that she wouldn’t get blood everywhere. She lifted it to make sure it didn’t go under the water.“Then I said to my husband, ‘We have to go get first aid. Look at my finger.’ And so I showed him my finger and I thought he was going to pass out because it’s kind of ugly.”Clark’s 28-year-old daughter found the finger and pointed it out to a lifeguard, who dove into the pool to retrieve it and the ring.A plastic surgeon at the University of Alberta hospital told Clark that there was nothing left to sew the finger back into and it had to be amputated. The surgeon did the procedure that day and Clark has six millimetres of her finger left.Clark, who has three children and five grandchildren, said her finger hurt a little bit after it happened, but not very much. She gets her stitches out on Monday.West Edmonton Mall said it was unable to comment on what happened because of an internal investigation.Clark wants the mall to advise people who are wearing jewelry to take it off before they go down the waterslides.She was working again at her job as a mobile mortgage specialist for RBC the same night she lost her finger and plans on seeing an occupational and physical therapist.She said she’ll never go to a water park again.“I didn’t lose my life. So I’m happy about that,” Clark said.“I’ll have tears once in awhile and I’ll wish I could get my finger back sometimes, but I don’t think I ever will.”— By Ryan McKenna in Regina. Follow @RyanBMcKenna on Twitterlast_img read more


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first_imgVisuals have always been a better way to elucidate one’s feelings as well as reach out to people and connect with much ease and sincerity and so what can be better than photography exhibition, where images speak for themselves.Keeping that thought in mind, ‘Habitat Photosphere,’ a photography festival will hold its first ever international workshop titled ‘The World Upside Down: Modes of Representation in The East and the West’ by French artist Pascal Monteil at the Experimental Art Gallery, India Habitat Centre on Saturday.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Monteil will take the participants of the workshop, from Rome to Tokyo, through Ispahan, Lahore and Fatehpur Sikri, onto a visual journey through world art histories and their modes of representation. He will be discussing specific paintings as well as his personal journey as an artist taking inspiration from various traditions.Monteil’s works are done using a particular technique called digital painting. “Each one of my work is done minutely with thousands of photographic elements either designed or painted; they are adjusted, superimposed, revised and lit-up on computer. Thanks to digital technique, using these fragments just as a painter would do with his colors and paintbrushes; I wish to achieve pictures with a photographic depiction combined with the very special power of painting to sublime the real and its emotional precision,” said Monteil. Monteil’s work is an exploration and a re-interpretation of Persian and Indian miniature traditions.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixDr Alka Pande, curator and art consultant, Visual Arts Gallery, IHC said, “Pascal Monteil is an artist of the world. An international cosmopolitanism, bordering on the exotic and the unknown, characterises his suite of ‘paintings’. He is an artist, who combines the traditional art of painting with contemporary digital photography and makes compelling landscapes which cross boundaries of geographies and cultures. These phantasmagorical imagined landscapes emerge from his experiences and his training as a painter. A peripatetic traveler, his paintings are replete with historical and cultural references. An incredible storyteller, Pascal is a bard, who through his lyrical renditions tells stories about his travels. From the city of love, philosophy and artistic effulgence Paris, he travels to India, to Persia to Japan, reading the landscapes of these ancient civilisations, creating arresting juxtapositions on the canvas.”  Pascal Monteil is a visual artist who lives and works between Paris and various cities in Asia. Beside his artistic practice, Pascal has also been teaching art and architecture for the past fifteen years. The fee for participation in the workshop is Rs 400 for India Habitat Centre members; Rs 500 for non-members and Rs 200 Rs for students. As a part of Habitat Photosphere’s aim of taking art photography into the public space, Monteil’s works will also be exhibited at the Jor Bagh metro station from December 2015 till March 2016.last_img read more


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first_img Click to playTap to play Video Loading Video Unavailable Video will play in  We pay for stories! Send your videos to video@trinitymirror.comWelcome to The Sentinel’s breaking news service bringing you all the latest updates from Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire on Thursday, March 22. Our team of reporters will be updating this live service with all the latest on the weather, traffic and travel as well as news, sport and entertainment through the day. We’ll be bringing you the very latest updates in our live news feed below. For the latest news and breaking news visit www.thesentinel.co.uk . Get all the big headlines, pictures, analysis, opinion and video on the stories that matter to you. Follow us on Twitter @ SentinelStaffs – the official Sentinel account – real news in real time. We’re also on www.facebook.com/sentinelstaffs – your must-see news, features, videos and pictures throughout Stoke-on-Trent, North Staffordshire & South Cheshire. Key EventsMajor dual carriageway partially blocked after crash between car and motorbike18:13Travellers set up camp on leisure centre car park17:14Can you identify these two men wanted in connection with serious assault?14:5719:25Busy going in CreweA534 Crewe Green Road Eastbound busy but moving before the roadworks at A5020 University Way (Crewe Green roundabout). 19:20Traffic light failure in SheltonSlow traffic due to traffic light failure on A52 Shelton Old Road at A500 D Road / A5006 Stoke Road (Stoke Road Interchange). 18:28Busy in Station RoadHeavy traffic on Station Road at A52 Leek Road. In the roadworks area.Stop/Go Boards are causing delays. 18:13KEY EVENTMajor dual carriageway partially blocked after crash between car and motorbikeBeasley Avenue and Talke Road (Image: Google Maps)A crash between a car and a motorbike has partially blocked a major dual carriageway.Emergency services were called to the scene in Beasley Avenue, Chesterton, at around 5pm this evening following the collision.17:39Accident ChestertonBeasley Avenue partially blocked due to accident, a car and a motorcycle involved at A34 Talke Road. Traffic is coping well.Traffic is able to pass with care. Police are in attendance. 17:14KEY EVENTTravellers set up camp on leisure centre car parkTravellers at The King’s school site (Image: Jade Barber)Travellers have set up camp on a leisure centre car park.At least four caravans parked up at Kidsgrove Sport Centre near to The King’s School, off First Avenue, at around 3.30pm this afternoon.Read more here.16:50Busy on the A449Heavy traffic on A449 Southbound at M6 J13 (Stafford South). 16:05Slow traffic in Cheadle RoadSlow traffic on A520 Cheadle Road in both directions near Hollow Lane. In the roadworks area.Temporary traffic lights for water main works causing delays. 15:50Busy through Tunstall…Heavy traffic on A527 Brownhills Road Westbound between Pinnox Street and A500 Queensway / Longbridge Hayes Road (Porthill Bank). 15:36All lanes open in A500 after car fireAll lanes open and traffic returned to normal, earlier car fire on A500 Northbound between Alsager Road (Audley Turn Off) and M6 J16 (Crewe / Stoke-On-Trent). 14:58Busy on the route into Hanley…Bucknall Road inbound busy but moving from A52 Leek Road (Lime Kiln Traffic Lights) to Hanley Town centre. 14:57KEY EVENTCan you identify these two men wanted in connection with serious assault?Two men wanted in connection with serious assault (Image: Staffordshire Police)Police have released a CCTV image of two men wanted in connection with a serious assault in the city centre.Officers were called to Trinity Street, Hanley, shortly after 3.55am on March 13 where a man had been attacked whilst withdrawing money from an ATM by the JNX nightclub.Read more here.14:24Broken down train on the West Coast MainlineDelays of up to 25 minutes on Virgin Trains West Coast between Milton Keynes Central and Rugby due to broken down train.13:56Queuing traffic on the A500Queueing traffic on A500 D Road Southbound before M6 J15. Travel time is four minutes.13:52All lanes have now reopened on M6All lanes on the M6 have now reopened.A Highways England spokesman said: “Traffic has been released on the M6 southbound between J14 and J13. All lanes are now open. Thanks for being patient.”13:35Broken down vehicle causing delays on A50 One lane closed and slow traffic due to broken down car on A50 Westbound between Stanley Matthews Way (Stadium junction) and A500 D Road (Sideway Roundabout), congestion to A5007 Victoria Place Fenton (Heron Cross / Fenton).One lane is closed just prior Sideway (Image: Inrix)13:30Two lanes shut due to accident on M6 SouthboundLive updates here.Traffic is building on the M6 (Image: Highways England)13:22Accident on M6Two lanes closed and slow traffic due to accident, a lorry and a car involved on M6 Southbound between J14 A34 / A5013 Creswell Grove (Stafford North) and J13 A449 (Stafford South).Lanes one and two (of three) is closed. 13:11A50 busy but movingA50 Westbound busy but moving from Meir Tunnel towards the A500 D Road (Sideway Roundabout). 12:51Falling tree left thousand homes without power in early hoursAll the home had their power restored by early this morning. More here. Homes were left without power in the early hours of the morning12:01Temporary traffic lights causing delays in CheddletonSlow traffic on A520 Cheadle Road in both directions near Hollow Lane. In the roadworks area.Temporary traffic lights for water main works causing delays. (Image: Inrix)10:37Update: Lorry now recovered10:3730 minute delays on M6 due to broken down lorryA Highways England spokesman said: “2 lanes blocked on the M6 northbound between J12 and J13. A truck has broken down. We are moving the vehicle now but there are delays of about 30 minutes approaching the incident.”10:25Broken down lorry causing delays in CongletonA34 Clayton By-Pass Eastbound partially blocked, slow traffic due to broken down lorry between Belgrave Avenue / Barn Road and A54 Rood Hill.A lorry has broken down near to Tesco. (Image: Inrix)10:04Slow traffic on A527A527 Brownhills Road Westbound busy but moving between Pinnox Street and A500 Queensway / Longbridge Hayes Road (Porthill Bank). (Image: Inrix)09:36Delays on trains between North Staffordshire and London Euston due to broken down trainDelays of up to 20 minutes on Virgin Trains West Coast between Watford Junction and Milton Keynes Central due to broken down train at Tring.09:26Staffordshire Police pay tribute to PC Keith PalmerPolice are today paying tribute to PC Keith Palmer, who was killed during the Westminster terrorist attack a year ago today.Palmer was one of five innocent people killed when terrorist Khalid Masood, who was also shot dead, ploughed a car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge before stabbing the unarmed police officer, who was guarding the entrance to Parliament.A Staffordshire Police spokesman said: Our thoughts today are of PC Keith Palmer and his family. He was killed one year ago today in the line of duty as he protected the public during the Westminster attack.”09:10Ryanair cancels flights due to air traffic control strike in FranceEasyjet are also among the airlines affected by the latest strikes. More here.A Ryanair jet at Dublin Airport in September 2017. (Image: Niall Carson/PA Wire )09:10Delays expected as abnormal load passes through Staffordshire this weekendThe load is travelling through North Staffordshire and South Cheshire en route to Ellesmere Port docks. More here.A wide load is passing through North Staffordshire this weekend (Image: Staffordshire Police)08:31Delays between Tunstall and the A500 There are delays on roads between Tunstall and the A500 – with delays of six minutes against the expected time. Watch again The video will start in 1Cancel Play nowcenter_img How to download The Sentinel’s new FREE app Share this video Watch Next Stoke Sentinel app launch Launch video for the Stoke Sentinel app.Video Player is loading.Play VideoPauseUnmute0:02/1:15Loaded: 0%0:03Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE-1:13 SharePlayback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedSubtitlessubtitles settings, opens subtitles settings dialogsubtitles off, selectedAudio Trackdefault, selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. 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first_imgShareCONTACT: Jade BoydPHONE: 713-348-6778E-MAIL: jadeboyd@rice.eduBiotech breakthrough could end biodiesel’s glycerin glutRice engineers find way to make ethanol, valuable chemicals from waste glycerinWith U.S. biodiesel production at an all-time high and a record number of new biodiesel plants under construction, the industry is facing an impending crisis over waste glycerin, the major byproduct of biodiesel production. New findings from Rice University suggest a possible answer in the form of a bacterium that ferments glycerin and produces ethanol, another popular biofuel.“We identified the metabolic processes and conditions that allow a known strain of E. coli to convert glycerin into ethanol,” said chemical engineer Ramon Gonzalez. “It’s also very efficient. We estimate the operational costs to be about 40 percent less that those of producing ethanol from corn.”Gonzalez said the biodiesel industry’s rapid growth has created a glycerin glut. The glut has forced glycerin producers like Dow Chemical and Procter and Gamble to shutter plants, and Gonzalez said some biodiesel producers are already unable to sell glycerin and instead must pay to dispose of it.“One pound of glycerin is produced for every 10 pounds of biodiesel,” said Gonzalez, Rice’s William Akers Assistant Professor in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. “The biodiesel business has tight margins, and until recently, glycerin was a valuable commodity, one that producers counted on selling to ensure profitability.”Researchers across the globe are racing to find ways to turn waste glycerin into profit. While some are looking at traditional chemical processing — finding a way to catalyze reactions that break glycerin into other chemicals — others, including Gonzalez, are focused on biological conversion. In biological conversion, researchers engineer a microorganism that can eat a specific chemical feedstock and excrete something useful. Many drugs are made this way, and the chemical processing industry is increasingly finding bioprocessing to be a “greener,” and sometimes cheaper, alternative to chemical processing.In a review article in the June issue of Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Gonzalez points out that very few microorganisms are capable of digesting glycerin in an oxygen-free environment. This oxygen-free process — known as anaerobic fermentation — is the most economical and widely used process for biological conversion.“We are confident that our findings will enable the use of E. coli to anaerobically produce ethanol and other products from glycerin with higher yields and lower costs than can be obtained using common sugar-based feedstocks like glucose and xylose,” Gonzalez said.The report in Current Opinion in Biotechnology was co-authored by postdoctoral research associate Syed Shams Yazdani. Graduate students Yandi Dharmadi and Abhishek Murarka assisted with the research. Gonzalez’s research is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Science Foundation. AddThislast_img read more